Is SiCl2F2 Polar or Nonpolar?
SiCl2F2 is a compound known as dichlorodifluorosilane. Dichlorodifluorosilane is commonly used as a cooling or freezing agent. This compound exists in the form of a colorless gas, and has an odor that is faint like.
This gas is colorless in nature and is non-flammable gas. Inhalation of this can lead to some major health effects. It is a type of fluorocarbon which is commercialized under the trade name – Freon-12.
This gas has a boiling point of -29.8֯c.
Dichlorodifluorosilane is soluble in many organic compound.
So, is Dichlorodifluorosilane polar or nonpolar?
The answer is yes, Dichlorodifluorosilane is a polar molecule, Fluorine and chlorine have more electronegativity so they pull electrons from the central silicone atom, which results in the partial positive change in the carbon atom and negative charge on fluorine and chlorine atom.
Also because chlorine and fluorine have two different electronegative and they do not cancel out one another causing it to be a polar bond.
Here let’s get introduced to a new term ‘dipole’ which means two poles i.e. consisting of a pair of opposite charges separating from each other. A dipole is formed with the molecules carrying a slightly positive charge and the other part carrying a slight negative charge. This happens when the electronegativity values of each atom is different.
What are Polar and Nonpolar Molecules?
There are two types of molecules i.e. polar molecules and nonpolar molecules. Polar molecules meaning oppositely charged whereas nonpolar meaning equally charged.
We might as well be introduced to the term polarity; polarity refers to the distribution of electrical charge around the chemical groups, molecules or atoms.
Some molecules can be easily separable about being polar or nonpolar molecules while some might possess both characteristics of polar and nonpolar molecules and might be tricky to find out.
Polar molecules occur when there is an electronegativity difference between the two bonded atoms. When two atoms do not share electrons equally in a covalent bond polar molecules are formed. Similarly, a dipole is formed when the molecules carry a slight positive charge and others carry a slightly negative charge.
A dipole is formed when there is a difference between the electronegativity values of each atom. When the electronegativity difference is extreme and higher it forms an ionic bond, whereas the lesser electronegativity difference forms a polar covalent bond.
If we take a look at the electronegativity on a table we can most likely predict whether the atoms are most likely to form polar or ionic bonds. It the electronegativity difference is between 0.5 and 2.0 the atoms form a polar covalent bond. If the electronegativity difference between the atoms is greater than 2.0 then the bond becomes an ionic bond.
An ionic bond is a linkage formed from the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a chemical compound.
A polar bond is a type of covalent bond.
Some examples of polar molecules are:
- Ammonia – NH3
- Water – H20
- Ethanol – C2H6O
- Sulfur dioxide – SO2
- Hydrogen sulfide – H2S
These molecules are used to show little ionic bonds as well as covalent characteristics i.e. they are soluble in water, they can conduct electricity, have a strong electrostatic force and many ionic characteristics despite having covalent bonds.
Nonpolar molecules are formed when the electrons are evenly distributed. When molecules share electrons equally in a covalent bond the molecules does not get electrically charged.
Nonpolar molecules mostly occur when the electrons are shared equal between atoms of a diatomic molecule or when the polar bonds in a larger molecule cancel out each other.
In a nonpolar molecule there is no positively charged or negatively charged poles in the molecules. When two atoms have the same or similar electronegativity nonpolar molecules gets formed, unlike polar bonds, nonpolar bonds share electrons equally.
If the electronegativity difference between two atoms is less than 0.5 the bond can be considered as nonpolar. The electrons get shared equally because the electronegativity difference between the two atoms is zero.
Some examples of nonpolar molecules are:
- Carbon dioxide – CO2
- Benzene – C6H6
- Methane – CH4
- Ethylene – C2H4
- Most organic molecules
- Any noble gases like neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe) and radon (Rn).
Only those with identical atoms can truly form nonpolar molecules. Nonpolar molecules can also be formed when atoms sharing a polar bond arrange in a way that the electric charges cancel each other out.
When these nonpolar molecules are placed in an electric field, the center of gravity of positive charge moves in a direction of the field and the center of gravity of negative charge in opposite direction.
Why is SiCl2F2 a Polar molecule?
Polar molecules can be defined as the presence of polar bond within the molecule. Polar molecules do not have symmetrical structure i.e. they have irregular geometry. During the presence of an electric field, the moments of polar molecules tends to align along on the direction of field. But during the absence of electric charge the moments of polar molecules get randomly spread.
Polar molecules are the molecules that has charge on one side of the molecule which does not get cancelled out. One end of the molecule is slightly positive charged and another end is slightly negative charged.
Polar molecules can have ionic or polar covalent bonds. They tend to stick together and line up in groups, which later can affect the properties of polar compounds.
When a molecule has two poles it is called a dipole. Measuring the amount of polarity of a molecule is known as dipole moment.
Polar solvents tend to dissolve polar solutes, similarly non-polar solvents tend to dissolve non-polar solutes.
In the Lewis structure of SiCl2F2, one carbon is at the center surrounded by 4 atoms. These molecules have a tetrahedral molecular geometry which further caused this bond to be a polar bond.
Is SiCl2F2 Polar or Nonpolar?
Electronegativity can be defined as the tendency of an atom to attract lone pairs of electrons towards itself from the partner sharing atoms.
Atoms that have higher electronegativity value than its bonding atoms do not share the pair of centralized electron meaning that the shared electrons in a bond are less close to the atoms having higher value.
If the electronegativity difference between two atoms is between 0.5 to 2.0 it is considered as a polar bond.
Electronegativity difference is very important factor to determine the polarity of any molecules. Or in simpler terms electronegativity is the measurement of how much an atom would want to bond with another atom.
Lewis structure/ molecular geometry:
When the arrows are of different length and if the arrows do not balance each other and are asymmetrical then the molecule is considered to be a polar molecule.
Here there is a total of 32 valence electrons which participate in the molecule formation. Both fluorine and chlorine have three lone pairs of electrons and they do not participate in bond formation.
Due to these two atoms being distinct and having different dipole charged and electronegativity value, this molecule has a tetrahedral geometry causing it to be asymmetrical.
Here the net dipole moment doesn’t cancel out, and this is what causes this bond to be a polar molecule bond.
A molecule with two poles is known as dipole. A dipole moment is a moment where there is a separation of charge. A dipole moment can occur between two ions in an ionic bond or between two atoms present in a covalent bond. This moment arises from the differences in electronegativity.
Dipole moment is a primary factor for any molecule whether being a polar or nonpolar molecule. Molecules that have zero dipole moment are known as nonpolar molecule whereas having net dipole moments are considered as a polar molecule.
The net dipole moment can be known as the product can be known as the product of dipole charge and the distance between the atoms, higher the electronegativity difference between the atoms higher the net dipole moment would be causing a higher partial change.
This bond having a tetrahedral geometry and being asymmetrical causes the dipole charges to not cancel out one another and the molecule having a net dipole moment makes this bond a polar molecule.
Electron density can be defined as the probability of the shared pair of electrons to be present at the dedicated position within the molecule. The shared pair of electrons which stay closer to the atom will have a higher electronegativity value.
In simpler words the electron density can be known as the measurement of the probability of an electron which is present at an element space surrounding any given point.
In SiCl2F2, fluorine and chlorine has high electron density compared to silicone due to their higher electronegativity value which causes the probability of finding an element higher.
According to the principle of solubility which states “likes dissolve in likes” meaning polar molecules dissolves in polar solvents and nonpolar molecules dissolving in nonpolar solvents.
Solubility is the quantity of a substance that can get completely dissolved in a given amount of solvent.
Properties of SiCl2F2
- It exists in the form of a colorless gas
- Has an ethereal or an odor that is very faint like.
- It can have serious health affects when inhaled.
- It is a type of fluorocarbon which is commercialized under the trade name – Freon-12.
Uses of SiCl2F2
- It is used as a refrigerant in the refrigerator and also as an air conditioner in vehicles.
- It is used as an aerosol spray propellant.
- It is used in submarines and air crafts as fire retardant.
When bond becomes polar when the bond between two or more atoms is a polar bond if the atoms have significant different electronegativities. Polar bonds do not share the electrons equally in a symmetrical way causing it to have a negative charge from the electrons being nor evenly distributed in the molecule.
Due to the two atoms fluorine and carbon being distinct and having different dipole charged and electronegativity value, this molecule has a tetrahedral geometry causing it to be asymmetrical.
Hence, the net dipole moment doesn’t cancel out, and this is what causes this bond to be a polar molecule bond.