Is GaH3 Polar or Nonpolar? [Quick overview]

Is GaH3 polar or non polar?

Is GaH3 is the molecular formula for Gallane which is also known as trihydridogallium. It is a colorless gas that cannot be concentrated in it’s pure form and is photosensitive in nature. This compound has no economic uses and is only produced for various academic reasons.

Trihydridogallium consists of gallium and hydrogen. It has a molecular mass of 72.74682 g/moll, which is calculated as below

Molar mass of GaH3 = 1*69.723 ( moll mass of gallium) + 3*1.00794 ( moll mass of hydrogen) = 72.74682 g/mol.

What are polar and non polar molecules?

In simple words polar means those oppositely charged and non polar means those equally charged. Distribution of electric charge around chemical groups, molecular or atoms is known as polarity.

There are two types of molecules that are polar and nonpolar molecules. Some molecules can be easily separable whereas some possess the characteristics of both molecules and can be tricky to find out.

Polar molecules

Polar molecules are those molecules that occur when there is an electronegativity difference between 2 bonded atoms.  When the two atoms do not share electrons equally in a covalent bond polar molecules are formed.

A dipole is formed when the molecules carrying a slight positive charge and other carrying a slight negative charge. This usually is formed when there is a difference between electronegative values of each atom.

By looking at the electronegativity on a table we can find out about what bond the atoms are most likely to form. If the electronegativity difference is between 0.4 and 2.0 the atoms form a polar covalent bond.  Hence if the electronegativity is higher than 2.0 it becomes an ionic bond.

Some examples of polar molecules

  • Ammonia – NH3
  • Water – H2O
  • Ethanol – C2H6O
  • Sulfur dioxide – SO2
  • hydrogen sulfide – H2S

Nonpolar molecules

In a nonpolar molecule there is no positive or negative charged poles. These molecules are formed when the electrons are evenly distributed. When the molecules share electrons equally in a covalent bond the molecules does not get electrically charged. When two atoms have the similar electronegativity nonpolar molecules will get formed.  Unlike polar bonds nonpolar bonds share electrons equally.

If the electronegativity difference between two atoms is less than 0.5 the bond can be considered as nonpolar. The electrons get shared equally because the electronegativity difference between the two atoms is 0.

Some examples of nonpolar molecules

  • carbon dioxide – CO2
  • benzene – C6H6
  • Methane – CH4
  • Ethylene – C2H4
  • most organic molecule

Why is GaH3 a nonpolar molecule?

These molecules are formed when the electrons are evenly distributed meaning that there is no positive or negatively charged poles in a nonpolar molecule.  When the molecules share electrons equally in a covalent bond the molecules do not get electrically charged hence nonpolar molecules are formed.

GaH3 is a nonpolar molecule as it has dipoles that are balanced and it has a trigonal planner shape causing this bond to be symmetrical in shape.

Is GaH3 polar or nonpolar?

Electronegativity difference

Electronegativity difference can be known as the propensity of a molecule to draw in solitary sets of electrons towards itself from the sharing accomplished particle.

In this bond of gallium and hydrogen,  gallium has an electronegativity value of 1.81 and hydrogen has an electronegativity value of 2.2 making  the electronegativity difference between them to be 0.39.

Lewis structure/molecular geometry

When the molecules share electrons equally in a covalent bond Nonpolar molecules are formed.

GaH3 has trigonal planar structure which causes the shape to be symmetrical and thus further causing this bond to be nonpolar in nature.

Dipole moment

Dipole can be known as molecules with two poles.  And  is the measurement which is done to separate the two opposite electrically charged poles.  A dipole moment can occur between two ions in an ionic bond or between two atoms in a covalent bond.  In simple words the dipole moment of a molecule is the vector of the some dipole moments present in the individual in the molecules and since in this bond the individual bond dipole moments cancel out one another there occurs no dipole moment.

Solubility principle

This principle states that the likes are dissolved in lakes meaning that polar molecules would dissolve in polar solvent and nonpolar molecules would dissolve in nonpolar solvents.


  • it has a molecular weight of 72.74682 g/mol.
  • It has a trigonal planar shape.
  • It is a nonpolar molecule.


  • It is used in hydride cluster as a hydrogen storage material.
  • It is used for various academic purposes.

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